“Setting Absurd Standards And Then Announcing Massive Failures Has Undermined Public Support For Public Schools. . . . We Are Dismantling Public School Systems Whose Problems Are Basically The Problems Of Racial And Economic Polarization, Segregation And Economic Disinvestment.”

Genius status.


(Educational Researcher, August/September 2014, p.286)  Gary Orfield.

Instead of reporting in terms of performance categories, we could report performance in terms of scale scores. A solid body of empirical research suggests that scale scores provide more complete information on performance and are more useful for the purpose of informing improvement efforts.

But unfortunately for corporate America, scale scores do not promote the lie that our educational system is failing… That lie is only propelled by reporting performance “categories” which are made up structures having no relevance outside the committee making them up……

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What Scares Me

There is a lot of misinformation, intention (good and bad), double speak, and confusion floating around these days about standardized testing and its myriad uses. I’d like to go on record about this, and about why I object to the use of standardized tests as part of educator evaluations.

What scares me about using standardized test scores in educator evaluations is NOT fear of being held accountable for the scores of my students because I am a bad teacher.

What scares me is the students who have a bad day and bomb the test, or don’t take the test seriously and bomb it, or are all tested out and bomb it, or didn’t get enough sleep or enough to eat or had no where to stay or had a fight with a best friend or…. And bomb the test.

What scares me is there being no good back-up plan for when something planned OR unplanned happens and I miss part of the school year because I had a baby or cancer surgery, and my students don’t have the benefit of my teaching, yet my worth and value as an educator is still based on their test scores.

What scares me is the thought of losing my entire livelihood due to any combination of those factors, my family losing their home and security.

What scares me the most is how no one who has the power to make a difference seems to see the reality of the situation, to listen and take action.

Would you live with that fear?

Think about it honestly. If you knew you would be fired because your patients had a high mortality rate, would you become an oncologist?

If you knew you would be fired because you didn’t get the EPA estimated gas mileage out of your bus on its daily route, would you become a driver?

If you knew you would be fired because too many people didn’t return their items on time, would you become a librarian?

Certainly, in any profession there must be accountability for performance of job duties. I have zero issue with being evaluated based on working my expected hours, getting the job done right even if it means working unpaid hours, being prepared, attending meetings, delivering engaging lessons, and even demonstrating that my students are gaining knowledge in my class. I wrote a whole post on that once…

What I DO have an issue with is a test that exists for the sole purpose of evaluating student learning with the end goal of using that knowledge to close schools and fire educators.

What I DO have an issue with is spending thousands, millions, even billions of dollars on these tests, money that would be much better spent in the classrooms using a well-crafted, need-based funding method.

What I DO have an issue with is folks openly discussing the underserved, “failing” student populations while stubbornly clinging to the belief that somehow the diverting of funds from the classrooms to the testing system will make things better. What good is identifying these students if we’re not going to make significant, real changes to the very system that is forcing the inequities in education?

What scares me is that this seems for all the world like straight up common sense to me, yet I am clearly in the minority. And there would appear to be nothing I can do about that.

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I Don’t Think You Get It

My decision to prevent my child from taking the Smarter Balanced Assessment is not about the anti-testing movement.

Now that THAT’S out of the way, let’s talk.

This particular test serves zero purpose in the education of my child. This test will not in any way inform the instruction of my child. It will be taken at the end of the school year and its results will be available well after her teacher could potentially use them to address her learning needs.

I just used truth to debunk the largest rationale for why students should take this particular assessment.

My child is already taking numerous other standardized tests, the results of which are available immediately and highly useful for informing her teacher of her needs. Could she benefit from taking fewer of those tests? Certainly. Do I have a major issue with her taking those other tests? Not really, no. Why? BECAUSE THEY ARE USEFUL TO HER TEACHER IN ADDRESSING HER NEEDS.

While we’re at it, stop saying this test will help us identify students and schools that need additional resources. First, those resources rarely come, and when they do there are often so many strings attached and so little time given for real change to take place that it’s illogical at best to expect improvement. Next, we already know which students and schools need the additional resources. We also have solid research that shows how students learn and what supports they need. So why aren’t we doing that? No, let’s just test them, over and over, and be dismayed and confused as to why they aren’t doing better. Definition of insanity, anyone?

Also, let’s fire those bad teachers, over 99% of whom were rated EFFECTIVE even when using test scores, begging the question of how are they so bad. Let’s disrupt the school community and change everything up and make the kids sit through MORE days and MORE hours of mathematics and English language arts and FEWER hours of ANYTHING different, like gym and art and world languages. And let’s not even mention that the preferred schools (charters and private schools) do exactly the opposite of what traditional public schools are being forced to do, and that those are the schools our elected officials and the 1% are sending their kids to.

This testing is elitism at its finest. The haves and the have nots. Creating a classist system wherein only the economically privileged get the benefit of the best, most well-rounded, advanced, creative, well-funded, least-constrictive educational system. What is this, the 1800s?

Is my daughter a political pawn? Only because you’ve made her so.

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My HB 50 Letter

I sent this late last night to all members of the House Education Committee as well as all sponsors and co-sponsors of this important legislation.

“April 25, 2015

Dear House Education Committee Members;

It was my pleasure to be in attendance at the April 22 House Education Committee meeting and to hear the discussion and debate around HB 50. I was concerned about what I felt were a few areas of inconsistent messaging and inaccurate information, and I wanted to share my thoughts further.

During my public comment, I pointed out that many members of the committee demonstrated the basic issues with the standardized testing system. It is not lost on me as a parent and an educator that there needs to be both accountability and demonstration of student achievement. However, when the major concerns raised by many of the legislators present revolved around the “uneducated inner city parents” being unable to advocate for their children and the possibility that schools and educators might “counsel out” students with disabilities, students of racial or ethnic minority status, students of low socio-economic status, and students from inner city or urban areas to boost their scores, this to me says the testing is not being used to identify which students need additional resources. Clearly the representatives are aware that these categories of students are the most likely to not meet proficiency levels on these standardized assessments, and in fact the data over the past decade or so since the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, commonly known as No Child Left Behind, bears this out. The “cells” commonly missed for schools to meet adequate yearly progress are usually in the areas listed above; do we really need a new test for a new generation of students to tell us what years of data already has?

Speaking of years of data, what steps has the Delaware Department of Education, the elected officials in that timeframe, and the legislature done to address these needs? Why have there been so many reports from so many different advisory groups addressing the needs of students in the city of Wilmington that have gone unheeded until now? Why are there so many charter schools authorized in the city, further fragmenting the voice and cohesiveness of the community? All we seem to do in education is collect more data and generate more reports, but action is rarely taken. When action is taken, it violates every research-based best educational practice in a highly disruptive, disrespectful way, and it has continued for far too long.

When educators say they want to know how their students are progressing, and that they need data, the least useful form of data is this large standardized test. As a parent and an educator, I fully understand the desire to reduce the number of tests a student takes that are outside the curriculum. However, cutting out the formative tests is really not the way to go. Those are the tests that identified my son as a struggling reader in kindergarten so he could get the help he needed to become an advanced reader in first grade. Those are the tests that qualified my daughter for the talented and gifted program in third grade. The Smarter Balanced Assessment results would not have been returned in time for my kids’ teachers to make real changes and impact their education in the moment. Additionally, now that all educators are responsible for fulfilling a student achievement goal in the evaluation system, all those tests will need to be given for those purposes. If any test should be the one to go, it would quite obviously be the Smarter Balanced Assessment, the only test that has literally no ability to impact anything about an educator’s individualized instruction in the classroom and which results will not be received in time to evaluate the educators under the DPAS II system.

When I made the decision to not allow my daughter to take the Smarter Balanced Assessment this year, and the “practice DCAS” last year, it was with full awareness that this test would have zero impact on the services she is receiving from her teachers. We had a very long discussion about the difference between the regular tests her teachers give and this particular assessment, and she knows she is only able to skip this one. She also knows that, if she is sent to the computer lab with her classmates, she has my permission to read a book and is not to touch the computer. Although I understand the threats that the US Department of Education has levied against the states with regards to testing percentage requirements, with all due respect, that is of very little concern to me as a parent. This issue is extremely personal, and as a parent it is my responsibility to make the decision that is best for my child. In this case, that is to not take this test. Regardless of anything else, short of taking my child’s hand and physically putting it on the computer mouse, there is no person who will be able to force me to reconsider or force her to take the test. And my other three children will not be taking the test, either.

There are plenty of ways to evaluate educators without the heavy emphasis placed on this standardized assessment. The focus on standardized assessments is destroying American education, narrowing the subjects students have an ability to learn, and reducing the time educators have to get to know their students and really hone in on the best ways to instruct them. We are truly not testing for data, because we already know, as you yourselves pointed out, which students need the additional resources they do not have. We also know what resources our communities need, and although there are no easy answers, it is imperative that we drop the rhetoric that has no potential for altering the outcomes and really address the root of the issues. We need a weighted funding formula for high needs schools that funnels MORE money into these schools without reducing the funding in the remaining schools. We need a cohesive plan for education in the city of Wilmington in particular, but for the state in general. We need district-level charter schools as opposed to state-authorized charters.

But most of all we need to remove the fear of failure from our educators and students. That’s all the testing gives us. I implore you to support this legislation, House Bill 50, and clarify the existing ability for parents to determine the educational course for their students with regards to this one assessment. Once the dust has settled we can begin the discussion about the proven methods of evaluating student learning and determining the educator’s role in that achievement.

Thank you for your time, and for your dedication to the people of the state of Delaware.



*Jackie Kook”

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The Individual versus The Collective

On Thursday, March 12, I was part of a panel of educators, parents, and local union leaders who spoke at a press conference announcing the resolution on educational leadership in Delaware that the Christina and Red Clay Education Associations adopted. In subsequent days I have heard a number of comments, but the one most pervasive concern with the resolution that I’d like to address today is that in every organization there are folks who do not deserve the reputation of the collective. (Obviously I’m paraphrasing here.)

Unfortunately, the opportunity to address this concern myself in person has not presented itself. I would like to take a moment of personal privilege to first publish a portion of my speech from Thursday night and then give an analogy that I hope will not only make sense but also help others to understand, if not agree with, my position. Disagreement is completely acceptable to me, as this is a highly sensitive subject! Without disagreement and civil discourse, progress cannot be made.

“It is important to differentiate between the individuals and the collective of these three areas of educational leadership. There must be the belief that every individual acts with the best interest of those he or she serves at heart, and the intention here is not to slander or defame any individual person. Rather, it is to shine a light on the decision-making bodies of Delaware education in the hopes that the dynamic will shift and open dialogue will not only take place, but also be heeded. …

The Secretary of Education, Mr. Mark Murphy, is a named party in this resolution not because of his personality or background or educational experience, but because of his actions. Some of these actions, such as those outlined in the resolution, speak to a deep lack of respect for and confidence in Delaware’s public education system. …

It is very difficult to separate the roles and accountability levels between the Secretary of Education and the Department of Education as a whole. Again, the belief is not necessarily that the individual employees are villainous; quite the contrary. The issues stem from the very large disconnect between what is happening in classrooms and schools across the state as compared to what the Department as an entity says is happening, and upon which foundation the Department is laying its system of improving public education. Surveys and in-person meetings and town halls are very good methods of communication, but engaging in discussion and still making decisions that are not in the best interest of education is seen as the modus operandi of the Department. …

The connectedness of the Department’s policies and the Secretary’s guidance cannot be overlooked or ignored, which is why the resolution addresses both.

Finally, the State Board of Education, another entity made up of well-meaning individuals with backgrounds in various educational activities, had to be named strictly because there have been testimonies given before the Board regarding different initiatives and decisions made that can be proven to be either ineffective or counterproductive that the Board has failed to acknowledge. The Board is directly accountable for approving the Secretary’s and Department’s plans and policies, and in this area of oversight the Board has failed to act as a checks and balances system by vetting all programs and being knowledgeable of issues. I have sat through several Board meetings, and heard several audio recordings, in which Board members had less knowledge of the topic being discussed than the audience members did, yet those Board members seemingly felt no compunction about making a decision while knowingly uninformed of the topic.”

I added some ellipses to indicate places where I’ve removed information that was in the speech I originally gave so I could get the reprint cut down a bit in size. I’m told there is uncut footage of the press conference, including my speech, and though I’m not sure where, I’m certain you can find it if you’re interested. The point I’m trying to make is that there is a specific, deliberate, reasoned rationale for including all three groups of educational leaders as well as a specific, deliberate, reasoned rationale why they are named as groups instead of individuals (except in the obvious example of the Secretary of Education, who is an individual by virtue of the position).

Let’s apply this concept of individual versus collective to other areas, which is why I’ve copied the actual text of the speech.

Don’t educators get upset when they are labeled as ineffective because their school’s standardized test scores are low, even if all other evaluative indicators point to them being effective? Yes, but when given a label such as “priority school” every educator is expected to reapply for his or her job regardless of their personal effectiveness.

Don’t unionists frequently have to fight the idea that they are protecting employees who perform poorly and should be fired? Yes, but since the media tends to report unusual stories rather than the daily activities, the employees who make headlines are the ones who act out of character of the collective, and it falls to the union to ensure discipline and termination procedures are followed fairly. That is a very small percentage of what unions do, but it is what most people are familiar with, and therefore defines the organization to a large extent.

Is it fair? No. Is it personal? No. Should it be? Arguable. But that is not the point. The point is that the actions of the collective define the individuals, right, wrong, or indifferent. This is not to say that everyone in the Delaware Department of Education is making bad decisions all the time. This is not to say that all of the members of the State Board of Education are willfully ignorant of educational issues at all times. It is unfortunate, but it is universal that this unintended application of labeling happens. There are ways to combat that, but that is a discussion for another post.

This IS to say that it is high time we move past the data gathering and processing and publicizing stage and into the action stage. For years now, literally years, it can be proven that certain types of amounts of data, both anecdotal and research-based, have been given to multiple parties in the DDOE and DSBOE, as well as to Secretary of Education Murphy, and by varied parties. The public has spoken. The legislators have spoken. Educators have spoken. Union leaders have spoken. Statisticians have spoken. Psychologists have spoken. Institutions of higher education have spoken. Business and community partners have spoken. At what point will the decisions begin to make sense based on the data? By the time it happens, how much damage will have been done? How much has already been done? Is that even quantifiable?

It’s small wonder that many folks buy into a quasi-conspiracy theory about for-profit groups and “The Delaware Way”. What else would make sense? It defies logic that highly educated, experienced, dedicated people would make decisions so contrary to all evidence as these three groups have. Yet they have.

Nothing about this resolution is safe or free from anxiety and repercussion. However, united we stand, and I am proud of my union brothers and sisters who have taken up the clarion call not only in the two districts involved, but across the state. Thank you for your support, and let this be our guiding principle:

“Those who would give up essential liberty to purchase a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.” -Benjamin Franklin

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SBAC Declared Violation of Federal Law

Well now, isn’t this interesting…

Click to access Sauer%20v.%20Nixon%20-%20Judgment.pdf

The link will take you to the pdf file showing a Missouri judge’s ruling that the SBAC is an “unlawful interstate compact that the U.S. Congress never consented to”. I have not read the entire thing, but this is potentially big news!

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The Opt Out Saga Lurches Forward

About two weeks ago I shared a blog post with the contents of my letter stating that my daughter will not be taking the Smarter Balanced Assessment this spring at her school, Linden Hill Elementary School in the Red Clay Consolidated School District. On February 23, 2015, I received a phone call from the principal, at which time he notified me he was in receipt of my “opt out letter” and explaining the potential consequences for the school and district, as per the directive sent out by the Delaware Department of Education. Obviously I’m well aware of what that letter says, and I’m well aware of the district’s obligation to notify me, so I listened, thanked him for his time, and told him I still intend for Cait to not take the test. He gave me the name and number of a person in the district office and said I would need to call her for the next steps.

Today, February 24, 2015, I attended Young Author Day at my children’s school. Early in the day was the visit time for my son, Craig, and on my way in I made sure to introduce myself to the principal so he knew who I was by sight; I usually see him in the afternoons when I pick the kids up at school. Afterwards, I made sure to swing by and vote YES for the referendum! Later today I will be attending the visit time for my daughter, and I expect things to get really exciting then…

More on that in a moment.

When I returned home around 10:15, I called the contact at district office. She was extremely pleasant and polite, as was the principal last night, and she essentially told me the same pieces of information he had. She seemed rather flustered, which I found kind of funny because I expected her to be very emotionless and almost combative. (That isn’t the word I really want, but it’s the first word that comes to mind.) Apparently she expected the same of me, as she told me I am the first parent who she’s discussed this with and thanked me multiple times for “taking this so well”. I told her I understand she’s in a very untenable position, and that “this isn’t New York”, and that I’m aware of all the information on both sides of the issue.

I was fully prepared to REALLY get into sharing who I am and why nothing she said would change my mind, but none of that was necessary.

The tone from both officials to whom I spoke was courteous, straight-forward, and clearly concerned with following procedure. I did not get the impression from either that what I was requesting was wrong, or that they were unreasonable individuals hell-bent on making my daughter take the test.

In a nutshell, within the next two weeks I will receive a letter from the Red Clay Consolidated School District stating all the information that both the principal and district official told me on the phone. If you really want to read the DDOE position statement, it’s been published numerous times online; I’m not interested in wasting my time looking it up because, frankly, I don’t care as it is a pile of lies designed to intimidate and frighten parents into backing down. Or maybe it’s not, maybe DDOE really believes in what parents are doing but can’t say it out loud, so they crafted this thing to make it seem like they’re trying to frighten parents when really they’re hoping we’ll all call their bluff.

HA. Okay that was fun.

Once I receive The Letter, I will follow up with my own “thank you for the information but my daughter is not taking the test” statement, and that will be the end. My daughter will not take the test. She won’t be forced to. It sounds as though the expectation is she will attend the test taking session in the computer lab because “that is the educational programming scheduled for those days” but her teacher has already said he’s willing to give curricular work to the students who are opting out.

I’ll give you a second to re-read the second part of that last statement.


My daughter must have the best, most awesome teacher in the world! (She does teehee)

I’m not interested in outing her teacher or in any way getting him in anything even slightly resembling trouble. Which probably means I should pull her out of his class and cut off all communications with the poor man, since just that connection is probably enough to get him a place on the FBI’s subversives list right next to me, but that’s beside the point. What I WILL say, however, is that being aware of the ridiculous amount of time being wasted spent (oh, what the hell) WASTED on this test, is a very powerful thing.

Which brings us to this afternoon. Bet you thought I forgot about that ellipsis up there…

I made sure to get up this morning and come downstairs prior to my kids leaving for school specifically so I could recommend to my daughter that she wear her opt out t-shirt today. (If you want one of your own, check here.) Of course she did, and I’m SO ready for 1:15, when I get to saunter into her classroom for the visit time and (hopefully!!!!) field questions from other parents who will SURELY put two and two together between the testing update we have all received and a sly comment about providing curricular work for students who have been opted out, notice her amazing t-shirt, and ask her mother (ME!!!) all about it!

So here we go, folks. The opt out movement is alive and well in RCCSD. One last point before I go; in no place and at no time did I ever state that I would be opting my daughter out from the test. My exact words were, and have been: “At this time we are formally notifying you that Caitlin will not be taking this assessment.” If you read my letter, and I hope you did, you’ll see that I also didn’t make any statements about parental rights or legal consequences or anything else, just a statement of refusal worded as an expectation (not a question or action anyone could argue against) and a statement of firm support for her educators, who are unquestionably stellar and trustworthy as stewards of my daughter’s educational upbringing.


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A Free Bird


I’ve been thinking over how to do this, whether to write this post with a tone, or overload it with facts and figures and research.

I think what is best is just to speak from my heart on this. I’m willing to provide data to support my assertions, but in many ways and in many places I already have. Please take a few moments to look it up for yourself, if you aren’t sure, or message me directly, and I’m happy to answer anything I can.

That said, here we go.

We are all having the wrong conversation. All we discuss is how we can improve student learning, and what impact all the different things in a student’s life have on the student’s ability to learn, and how we can respond to the needs of students to help them learn. And that is a beautiful thing, truly. I would not argue with any of that, with any of the discussions or data or facts or opinions on those topics.

What I WILL argue with, however, is having this discussion as a means to label and punish instead of uplift and support, because in reality, this discussion is based on a wholly flawed foundation. And I do mean wholly.

When it comes right down to bare facts and hard data, the reality is that students today are learning more with lower dropout and higher graduation rates and with less of an achievement gap than ever before in recorded American history.

Keep your opinions and dearly-held beliefs to yourself for a few moments. In the entertainment industry this would be called “willing suspension of disbelief”. Be a good listener and stop formulating your counter-argument while I’m still talking.

We will never achieve 100% of anything. NEVER. The very concept of perfection is patently ridiculous. There are exceptions to every rule, right? It is ludicrous to expect that 100% of students will graduate from high school with passing scores on any given standardized assessment and go on to college where they will successfully complete a full degree in the expected time frame and find a job and live the American dream with little pink houses for you and me. And in any case, whose dream is that? Even parents get the dreams of their children wrong. What makes any individual competent to say every child should go from Point A to Point B, and should any given child deviate from that course (say, to take the road less traveled), well, that child is failing? And not only is that child failing, but that child should be told he is failing, and that his school is failing and his beloved teacher is failing as a result of his failure.

What a heavy burden to lay upon the shoulders of a 9-year old kid, a 3rd grader, the age of my daughter, my eldest child. (Who, by the way, is absolutely NOT taking that damnable test.)

It is no difficult thing to see the spark of creativity and enthusiasm die in a child forced to perform at ever-higher levels of achievement, although it is difficult to witness. Educators of conscience, what are we to do? To sit hopelessly by and allow it to happen? What of the future? Where are the educators of tomorrow? Where are the leaders of tomorrow? Hell, where are the role models of today? Everywhere we look there is corruption. Money can’t buy happiness? Sure it can, and if it can’t literally be used in that way it can certainly ease the pangs of discomfort and desire. Those in power wield it as both shield and sword, alternately striking at and deflecting blows from the “have-nots”.

What is my solution, you might be wondering. What do I think we should do instead of what we’re already doing? How can we make things better?

WHICH IS MY ENTIRE POINT. What needs to be made “better”, and what does “better” look like or mean? How can we improve student achievement? WE ALREADY HAVE. How can we decrease dropout rates and increase graduation rates? WE ALREADY HAVE. When will it be enough for you, for us?

Am I beating my head against a stone wall, spitting into the wind? I’m okay with you thinking that. Some day, however, some day we will need to acknowledge that we have created the very system that, through its self-fulfilling cyclical nature, can never be perfected. The better we are, the better we want to be. The better the kids score on the test, the more we need a test that is harder so we can prove that we still need to get better. Because what happens if we aren’t always racing to the top? What happens if we give kids the space to be kids, instead of forcing them to be automatons, widgets, cogs in the clock? What happens if we nurture the spark in the eyes of our children instead of watching it slowly dim, until all that is left is the darkness waiting to be filled?

What if, instead of standardizing our educators and our kids, we allowed ourselves to celebrate their differences? What if, instead of winnowing learning down to a set of questions on a single test, we allowed students to show us their knowledge as artisans, in their own ways and at their own speed? What if we trusted our educators to recognize the achievements of their individual students and determine what needs to happen to support their learning? While we’re at it, what if we gave the educators the resources they need to make all that happen?

I know why the caged bird sings.

“the caged bird sings of freedom”

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My Opt Out Letter

I’m proud to say my daughter, of her own volition, wore her “my parents opted me out because” t-shirt to school today, when she took the letter in 🙂

February 10, 2015

Mr. Thomas Glennon, Principal
Linden Hill Elementary School
3415 Skyline Drive
Wilmington, DE 19808

Dear Mr. Glennon;

Our daughter, Caitlin E. Kook, is in 3rd grade with Mr. B- at Linden Hill Elementary School. It is our understanding that the 3rd grade will take the Smarter (formerly Smarter Balanced) Assessment at some point this spring. At this time we are formally notifying you that Caitlin will not be taking this assessment. Last year she was permitted to sit with a different class while her class was testing, and it is our expectation that she will follow this procedure again this year. If there is any concern about Caitlin’s educational progress, we are confident that Mr. B- and Mrs. H-, with whom Caitlin works through the Talented and Gifted program, are both qualified and capable to assess and address her needs.

Thank you for your time and attention to this matter.


David and Jackie Kook

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Senator Townsend & Rep. Williams Submit Legislation For DPAS II Advisory Committee

Love this. Reblogging!

Exceptional Delaware

Delaware Senator Bryan Townsend and State Representative Kim Williams have submitted Senate Bill #10 which would amend the Delaware Performance Appraisal System II Advisory Committee.  It is currently in the hands of the Senate Education Committee.  Here is the text of the bill so far:

SPONSOR:Sen. Townsend & Rep. K. Williams
 Sens. Blevins, Poore, Sokola; Reps. Barbieri, Bolden, Heffernan, Jaques, Kowalko, Lynn, Matthews, Osienski, B. Short








Section 1. Amend § 1275, Title 14 of the Delaware Code by making deletions as shown by strike through and insertions as shown by underline as follows:

  • 1275. DPAS II Advisory Committee.

(a) The Secretary shall convene

View original post 604 more words

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